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About this site

This site presents data and information on drinking water status in rural habitations of India, covered through the National Rural Drinking Water Programme of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India. This information is updated by the respective state governments. Efforts have been made to provide as much current information as is possible.

In general, the reports provide a drill down facility for viewing the information in the order of National, State, District, Block, Gram Panchayat, Village and Habitation statistics. Most of the reports are generated financial year wise, since the regular development planning in India, is done annually. The reports can also be viewed by filtering the category of habitations. These have been categorized based on demographic pattern, water quality affected areas and other special considerations like for example, SC/ST dominated habitations, Fluoride affected habitations, Extremist affected habitations respectively.

The following definition of terms and acronyms used in these reports may be useful for the viewers to interpret the data in the right perspective.


  • State and district - India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts.

  • Block - A block is an administrative entity. The jurisdiction is generally limited to rural parts of a district. There is usually more than one block within a district.

  • Gram Panchayat - Gram panchayats are local self-governments at the village or small town level in India. The gram panchayat is the foundation of the Panchayat System. A gram panchayat can be set up in villages with minimum population of 300. Sometimes two or more villages are clubbed together to form group-gram panchayat when the population of the individual villages is less than 300 ( source of definition - Wikipedia ).

  • Village - A village is a clustered human settlement or community, usually larger than a habitation with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand (sometimes tens of thousands). Historically, in India, villages were a usual form of community for societies that depend on agriculture for subsistence ( source of definition - Wikipedia ).

  • Habitation - It is a term used to define a group of families living in proximity to each other, within a village. It could have either heterogeneous or homogenous demographic pattern. There can be more than one habitation in a village but not vice versa.

  • Financial Year - Spans the period from the 1st of April of a year to 31st March of the next year. Eg. 1/4/2009 to 31/3/2010.

  • NRDWP - National Rural Drinking Water Programme. This programme was launched in April 2009 by the then Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation presently Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, for assisting states in providing drinking water to the rural population of India. This programme has incorporated paradigmatic changes in its previous version called the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme, by emphasizing on water supply systems which are planned and managed by the community at the village level, for ensuring sustainable drinking water availability, convenient delivery systems and achieving water security at the household level.

  • Norms of coverage of habitations under NRDWP - 40 lpcd is the minimum or lifeline supply that has to be provided to a habitation for considering it as “Fully Covered” under the NRDWP.

  • LPCD - liters per capita per day.

  • FC - Fully Covered. Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is equal to or more than 40 lpcd, are called “fully covered” habitations.

  • PC - Partially Covered. Those habitations in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 40 lpcd and equal to or more than 10 lpcd, are called “partially covered” habitations.

  • NC - Not Covered. Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 10 lpcd, are called “Not covered” habitations.

  • UnCovered Habitation - Such habitations are those which have never been provided with drinking water supply by the government, under the NRDWP (or former Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme).

  • QA Habitation - Quality Affected Habitations – These are the habitations where water samples tested in laboratories have indicated levels of chemical contamination (limited to Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate and Salinity) higher than the permissible limits set by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Special focus is laid on monitoring of coverage status of such habitations under NRDWP.

  • LWE - Left wing extremist or naxal affected areas. The list of such areas is provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Government of India has put special emphasis on monitoring the drinking water status in such areas.

  • DDP - Desert Development Programme. Under this programme, the blocks affected by desertification have been given special focus in terms of funds provided as well as enhancement of the minimum norms of supply of drinking water.

  • Minority Districts - Districts having Minority population greater than 25% of the total population, are considered as Minority Concentrated Districts. The list of such districts is provided by the Ministry of Minority Affairs. Government of India has put special emphasis on monitoring the drinking water status of such areas.

  • SC/ST dominated habitations - The Scheduled Castes (SCs), also known as the Dalit, and the Scheduled Tribes (STs) are two groupings of historically disadvantaged people that are given express recognition in the Constitution of India. During the period of British rule in the Indian sub-continent they were known as the Depressed Classes. SC dominated habitations are those habitations in which the Scheduled Caste population is equal to or more than 40% of total population. ST dominated habitations are those habitations in which the Scheduled Tribes population is equal to or more than 40% of total population. This definition has been adopted by the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation for purposes of monitoring the implementation of NRDWP.

  • PWS - Piped Water Supply systems. Such water supply systems provide water to various points away from the source of water through a pumping or gravity system and connections through pipelines.

  • Delivery Points - Public Taps / standposts. These are the water outlets which are provided by a Piped water supply system.

  • Spot Sources - Those water supply systems where the source of water and the supply/delivery system are both at the same point location, are called spot sources. Eg. Hand humps, wells, ponds etc.

  • HP - Hand pumps. It is a system of pumping out water from the ground or from an underground tank, by hand. It is a spot source.

  • Scheme - – Any work undertaken for providing drinking water or augmenting an existing drinking water supply system, and for which funds have been separately provided, is called a scheme or project. Apart from such works there are works which are undertaken for ensuring sustainability of a drinking water source. These are called “Sustainability” schemes.

  • Slipped back habitation - A habitation having status “Fully Covered” at one point of time but which is “Partially Covered” or “Quality Affected” presently, is called a Slipped back habitation.

  • MPR - Monthly Progress Report. The progress of implementation of the NRDWP on ground has to be reported by the state departments to the Ministry on a monthly basis. The coverage of habitations with potable drinking water, using NRDWP funds is reported through the MPR (Physical Progress). The user has to login on this site and upload the data.

    The expenditure incurred by the state departments from the NRDWP funds, has to be reported to the Ministry, on a monthly basis through MPR (Financial Progress). The user has to login on this site and upload the data.

  • Support Activities - 5% of NRDWP funds will released to States every year for undertaking software support activities. Read more at .

  • FTK - Field Test Kits. These are portable water sample test kits. These can be used for testing both bacteriological and chemical contamination in drinking water by using vials and H2S strips.

  • Sustainability Structures - Structures built for ensuring sustainability of a drinking water source. Eg. Check dams, recharge pits, sub surface dykes etc.

  • VWSC - Village Water and Sanitation Committees.

  • O&M - Operation and Maintenance.

  • IEC - Information, Education and Communication. It is tool used by the government to disseminate information related to its programmes, among the citizens. This is done through interpersonal communication, hoardings, advertisements, street plays etc. Read more at .

  • HRD - Human Resource Development. Training activities are carried out by the state departments for Panchayati Raj Institutions and the rural community as a whole. Read more at .

  • M&E - Monitoring and Evaluation. Central Government takes up monitoring and evaluation studies through reputed organizations / institutions from time to time. The State Governments may also take up similar monitoring and evaluation studies on the implementation of the rural water supply programme. Read more at .

  • MIS - Management Information Systems. For effective planning, monitoring and implementation of NRDWP, Information Technology (IT) based Management Information System provides the following support:- Maintenance of habitation -level status of water supply data to ensure planning and monitoring at micro and macro level. Read more at .

  • WQMS - Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme the issue of Water Quality Monitoring & Surveillance has been given due emphasis. The monitoring and surveillance results from the habitations are also to be put on the database of the Department and monitored to ensure drinking water security at the household level. Read more at .

  • R&D - Research and Development. Research & Development in the field of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation programme is one of the support activities of the Department of DWS for which 100% funding to research organizations including NGOs is given by the Central Government. Read more at .

  • Sanitary Survey - Effective drinking water quality control involves two equally important activities : sanitary survey of drinking water sources and sampling and analysis of water. A sanitary survey is carried out by a team of trained experts including a surveillance co-ordinator, panchayat pradhan and community representative. The survey questionnaire consists of a set of question related to the maintenance of the area around a source of water like the platform around a handpump, drainage channel, fencing around the installation, etc. and the presence of any source of pollution nearby, like stagnant water, pit latrine, dumping of animal excreta etc. Based on the answers the risk factor is calculated and the necessary remedial measures taken.

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Data presented in this site has been updated by respective State Governments & Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India.
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